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标题: 国际贸易术语通则--自己翻译,求指教
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国际贸易术语通则--自己翻译,求指教

本文为本人翻译,不当之处,还望指教。

To provide a set of uniform rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign,ICC(International Chamber of Commerce) first published a set of  international rules for the interpretation of trade terms known as "Incoterm 1936" in 1936.

为了给大多数常用的国际贸易术语提供一套统一的规则解释,国际商会在1936年首先出版了一套规则--《国际贸易术语解释通则1936》。

Later, amendments and additions were institued to bring the rules in line with current international trade practices.

之后,又对此做出了修改和补充以便使该通则更好的适应当前国际贸易的实践发展。

The latest edtion is "Incoterm 2000",which includes 13 differents international trade terms:EXW, CFR, CIF, CPT, CIP, FOB, FAS, FCA,

DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU, and DDP.

最近的版本是《国际贸易术语解释通则2000》,包含了以下13种术语:工厂交货--EXW, 成本加运费--CFR, 成本、保险费加运费--CIF, 运费付至--CPT, 运费、保险费付至--CIP, 船上交货--FOB, 装运港船上交货--FAS, 货交承运人--FCA, 边境交货--DAF, 目的港交货--DES, 目的港码头交货--DEQ, 未完税交货--DDU, and 完税后交货--DDP.

Each term specifies whether the buyer or the seller is responsible for arranging such necessities as export license,customs clearance,

inspections,and other obligations.

每种术语的区别在于是买主还是卖主对必要的信用证,清关,商检及其他义务负责。

They specify at which point the risk of loss and/or damage passes from seller to buyer as well as which party pays for specify activities.

同时,也指出了承担货物丢失/损坏风险责任转移的分界点--卖家转到买家--及哪方做出赔偿。

A buyer and a seller who conduct their purchase and sale under one of the Incoterms,therefore,will have an understanding of their

rights, costs, and obligations.

买家的购买卖家的销售都将受益于选择一种国际贸易术语解释通则的规定,因为,双方都清楚了解自己的权利,支出和义务所在。

Here six major terms are discussed.

本文将讨论主要的术语。

The traditional three trade terms are FOB, CFR, and CIF. While FCA ,CPT, and CIP are new terms developed on the baisc of the traditional ones.

传统的贸易术语有FOB,CFR和CIF。至于FCA,CPT和CIP则是建立在传统术语的基础上发展而来的。

They are suitable for any mode of transport.

他们适合配合在任何一种运输方式。

1. FOB--FREE OF BOARD(...named port of shipment)

1.FOB 船上交货(。。。指定装运港)

“Free on Board”means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the the ship's rail at the named port of shipment.

船上交货指当货物在指定的运输港越过船舷,卖家即完成交货。

That means the buyer has to bear all the costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that point.

这就意味着买家必须从这一刻起承担货物所有的支出,丢失和损坏风险。

The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

FOB要求卖家为货物办理出口清关手续。

This term  can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.

该术语只能被用于海运或内陆水运为运输方式的交易。

2.CFR--COST AND FREIGHT(...named port of destination)

2.CFR成本加运费(。。。指定目的港)

"Cost and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

成本加运费指当货物在指定的运输港越过船舷,卖家即完成交货。

The seller must pay all costs and freight necessary to bring goods to the named port of destination.

卖家必须承担所有将货物运输到指定目的港所需的成本和运费。

But the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any addtional costs due envents occurring after the time of delivery, are transferr-ed from the seller to the buyer.

但是货物丢失/损坏风险和任何在交货完成后产生的附加成本,被转移并由买家承担。

The CFR term requries the seller to clear the goods for exports.

CFR要求卖家办理货物出口清关手续。

This term can be used only for sea an inland waterway transport.

该术语只能被用于海运或内陆水运为运输方式的交易。

3.CIF--COST, INSURANCE, AND FREIGHT(...named port of destination)

CIF成本、保险费和运输费(。。。指定目的港)

"Cost, Insurance,and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

成本、保险费和运输费指当货物在指定的运输港越过船舷,卖家即完成交货。

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

卖家必须承担所有将货物运输到指定目的港所需的成本和运费。

Howeve, the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any addtional costs due envents occurring after the time of delivery, are transferr-ed from the seller to the buyer.

但是货物丢失/损坏风险和任何在交货完成后产生的附加成本,被转移并由买家承担。

However, the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss or damage to the goods during the  carriage.

同时,卖家还必须为买家办理货物在运输途中货物丢失或损坏风险的海运保险。

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the inurance premium.

因此卖家需联系保险公司并交付保费。

The CIF term requries  the seller to clear the goods for export.

CIF要求卖家办理货物出口清关手续。

4.FCA--FREE CARRIER(...named palce)

4.FCA货交承运人(。。。指定交货地)

"Free Carrier" means that the seller deliver the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place.

货交承运人指卖家在指定地将货物交予买家指定的承运人并为货物办理出口清关手续。

It should be noted that chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading te goods at that place.

需要说明的是,装卸货物地点的选择对于在该地点装货和卸货的义务会产生影响。

If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other palce, the seller is not

responsible for unloading.

如果交货地在卖方所在地,卖方需对货物装载负责。如果在其他任何地方交货,卖方将不承担货物卸载的责任。

This term may be used irrespective of mode of transport, including multimodal transport.

该术语可用于各种运输方式,包括多式联运。

If  the buyer  nominated a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.

如果买方指定的收货人不是承运人,那么卖家讲货交予到此人手上即算完成交货。

5.CPT--CARRIAGE PAID TO(...named place of destination)

CPT运费付至(。。。指定目的地)

"Carriage Paid To" means that  the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him, but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination.

运费付至指卖家指定货物承运人,并承担货物运输到指定目的地所需的费用和运输期间产生的附加费用。

This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occuring after the goods have been so delivered.

也就是说买家会面临所有交货之后的风险和产生的其他相关费用。

The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

CPT要求卖家办理货物出口清关手续。

This term may be used irrespective of the mode of trandport including multi-modal transport.

该术语可用于各种运输方式,包括多式联运。

Point To Note

注意

CPT has much in common with the term CFR.

CPT跟CFR有很多的相同之处。

The major difference is that CFR can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport, while CPT can be used for any mode of         transport including multi-modal transport.

两者最主要的不同点是CFR只适用于海运及内陆水运,CPT却适用于各种运输方式,包括多式联运。

If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship' rail, the CPT term is preferred.

如果双方不打算将货物越过船舷交货,应使用CPT术语。

6.CIP--CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO(...named place of destination)

6.CIP运费、保险费付至(。。。指定目的地)

"Carriage and Insurance Paid to" means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him, but the seller must also pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination.

运费、保险费付至指卖家将货物交给自己指定的承运人,并且承担货物运输到指定目的地所需的费用。

This means that the buyer bears all risks and any addtional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered.

也就是说。买家将面临在完成交货后所有风险和附加费。

However, the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's contracts for insurance and pay the insurance premium.

但是,卖家也要为买家办理货物运输保险并支付保险费。

This term may be used in irresoective of te mode of transport including multi-modal transport.

该术语可用于各种运输方式,包括多式联运。

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