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标题: 德文:《有关中国的5个迷思》
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德文:《有关中国的5个迷思》

德国《资本》月刊网站8月28日刊登题为《有关中国的5个迷思》一文。作者为德国梅迪亚特集团创始人兼执行总经理卡特娅·内特斯海姆。现将文章摘编如下:

1、中国人只会模仿?

文章称,中国公司长期以来声誉不好:模仿西方的成功产品、品牌和商业模式,稍加修改后在本国市场销售。这种现象以“山寨”这一中文概念而出名。但中国企业不仅仅接受功能模式,它们往往还对其升级改造。对原产品的这种解构和改进深深植根于中国的传统,这在古代杰作中已经能够找到。这是他们的创新方式。

模仿、改进或组合带来了一些新的和独有的东西,而不是简单的拷贝。事实上,中国在独立的国际专利申请数量方面正追赶上来。例如,2017年中国向世界知识产权组织提交的国际专利申请量排名第二,只小幅落后于美国。它在这个创纪录之年超过了日本,把日本挤到了第三位。在排名前15位的国家中,中国是唯一实现两位数年增长率(13.4%)的国家——而且自2003年以来从未间断地都是两位数增长。

2、中国还远远没有达到我们的发展水平?

文章表示,涉及中国在长期内是否会成为值得重视的竞争对手这个问题时,有关中国的另一个迷思表达了西方国家的某种傲慢。例如,中国仍然经常被视为一个为了达到西方经济大国水平而必须补很多课的发展中国家。但现在的现实看起来完全是另一个样子。特别是北京、上海、深圳和广州等城市正在推出越来越多的创新,并拥有让一个德国人只能羡慕的基础设施。“效率飞地”这个概念和“试点城市”这个务实概念也提供了就算不优于但也不弱于西方国家的创新潜力。“效率飞地”是指集合了某些专长的城市,“试点城市”则尝试政策和制度创新。

3、“中国制造”不如“德国制造”?

文章写道,“德国制造”和“中国制造”这两个标签乍一看似乎形成鲜明对比。可能您也认为前者质量高、误差容忍度低且极其精确,后者则“仓促、廉价、量大”。甚至在中国,“德国制造”品牌也格外受青睐。但中国现在不仅能够做到“更廉价”、而且往往也能做到“更好”。这在智能手机市场尤其明显。因此,“中国制造”不再是一个警告标识,而是正在变成越来越值得重视且会危及“德国制造”的创新标签。

4、中国人是非常有效率的工蜂?

这里必须进行区分:他们是工蜂,但不一定有效率。尤其在深圳这样的新兴城市很多人告诉我,中国人工作到危及健康的程度。部分原因在于这座城市的供应行业工作节奏非常快。这种工作狂的明显表现是,在每天很早和很晚的时候出现上下班高峰——以及在公共场所到处都有人打瞌睡。有时我会觉得他们先工作再思考。

5、中国经济增长不会再长久好下去?

作者表示,一提到中国的城市,很多人就会想到摩天大楼、拥挤的街道和雾霾。我在去中国之前也有类似的预期。但实际情况令我感到惊讶。我感觉不到空气污染——天空晴朗,空气清新。如果仔细了解一下,就会发现原因和变化程度都很明显:自2007年以来,中国就把建设“生态文明”作为国家战略。中国国家领导人说,决不以牺牲环境为代价去换取一时的经济增长。中国的情况是,说到做到。下面是几个例子:

·中国是电动汽车销售全球市场领头羊——包括公共交通。

·根据彭博新闻社提供的数据,全球安装的太阳能电池板有近三分之一是在中国。

·2018年,中国植树造林面积与爱尔兰国土面积相当。

·现在环保在官员绩效考核标准中排名第二,仅次于地方的GDP增长率。

环保政策的效果正在显现:据彭博新闻社报道,2017年北京平均每日空气污染程度比2015年下降近三分之一,而其他一些大城市的空气污染程度则下降了大约十分之一。

迄今没有迹象表明环保会让国家经济脱轨。2017年,中国GDP增长达到6.9%,是7年来首次提速。此外,中国把电动汽车和太阳能电池等高科技工业视为在环保方面扮演全球领导角色并制定标准的契机,尤其因为美国目前在这个领域撤离后留下真空。

所以,我只能引用一句古老的格言:百闻不如一见。我推荐大家到中国看看,而且不只是去看拥有长城和兵马俑的历史悠久的中国,尤其还要去看上海、深圳和广州等地的现代化中国。您会大开眼界!(编译/聂立涛/参考消息)

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5 Myths about China
With an EU delegation, Katja Nettesheim visited five Chinese cities in early summer. The journey has fundamentally changed her image of China. Here she clears up frequently heard myths about the People's Republic

by Katja Nettesheim
August 28, 2018

# 1 "Chinese can only copy"
Chinese companies have long had the dubious reputation of copying successful products, brands and business models from the West and selling them on their own market with only minor modifications. Such a phenomenon is known as "shanzhai," a Chinese term originally used to describe bandit-besieged villages outside government control. Since the opening up of China to the international markets, the name has become the epitome of counterfeit goods and IP theft in the wake of rising product piracy. And it is indeed striking how strongly Chinese companies seem to orientate themselves to western ones - so there were early exact replicas of "Nokir" or "Samsing" phones. But Chinese companies are doing more, as just functioning models - they often make them better. So I saw with my own eyes in the electronics markets iPhones, which run with the Chinese operating system superior Android. This deconstruction and improvement of the originals is deeply rooted in Chinese tradition and can already be found in ancient masterpieces. It is their kind of innovation, which explains the often lacking sense of wrongdoing from the Western point of view.

By copying and improving or combining, something new and independent arises instead of a simple copy. And in fact, China is catching up on the number of independent international patent applications. In 2017, the People's Republic of China was second in international patent applications to WIPO (behind the United States, but by a small margin), pushing Japan out of that position in yet another record year. Among the top 15 countries of origin, China is the only country to report double-digit annual growth (+ 13.4%) - double-digit, uninterrupted since 2003.

# 2 "China is not at our development level yet"
Another myth about China is expressed in a certain arrogance of Western countries when it comes to whether China is a serious competitor in the long term. China, for example, is still often regarded as a developing country which, in order to reach the level of Western economic powers, still has much to catch up with. The reality looks quite different now. Especially cities like Beijing, Shanghai and especially Shenzhen and Guangzhou are bringing forth more and more innovations and have an infrastructure that one can only envy as a German. The concept of efficiency enclaves, ie cities that provide a reservoir for specific specializations, as well as the pragmatic concept of pilot cities, in which political and institutional innovations are tried out, offer an innovation potential,

# 3 "Made in China can not do the trick" made in Germany
At first glance, the quality seals "Made in Germany" and "Made in China" supposedly represent a strong contrast. You probably also think on the one hand of high quality, low fault tolerance and extreme accuracy, on the other hand, "fast, cheap, a lot ". Even in China itself, the brand "made in Germany" works exceptionally well. Because China can now not only "cheaper", but often "better". This is especially noticeable on the smartphone market. Here, Huawei has taken up the fight with companies like Apple or Samsung - and is doing well. CEO Richard Yu said recently that they wanted to not only overtake Apple with uncompromisingly good quality, but also replace the Korean Samsung as the largest smartphone manufacturer. And indeed: According to preliminary IDC data, Huawei delivered 54.2 million handsets in the second quarter of 2018, up 40.9 percent from a year earlier. In the meantime, Apple has delivered "only" about 41.3 million units, which represents growth of 0.7 percent over the same period last year. "Made in China" is therefore no longer necessarily a warning, but under the strategy "Made in China 2025" is becoming more and more a serious seal of innovation - which can also make "made in Germany" dangerous. 7 percent compared to the same period last year. "Made in China" is therefore no longer necessarily a warning, but under the strategy "Made in China 2025" is becoming more and more a serious seal of innovation - which can also make "made in Germany" dangerous. 7 percent compared to the same period last year. "Made in China" is therefore no longer necessarily a warning, but under the strategy "Made in China 2025" is becoming more and more a serious seal of innovation - which can also make "made in Germany" dangerous.

# 4 "The Chinese are incredibly efficient worker bees"
Here you have to differentiate: working bees yes, but not necessarily efficient. So many, especially in emerging cities like Shenzhen, have told me that people are working to health risk. Partly because the supply industry around this city is so fast that you never have to wait long for prototypes and reworked versions. The obvious manifestation of this labor addiction are the pendulum currents that take place at very early and very late times - and the naps in public everywhere. But efficient? I do not know ... Sometimes you get the impression that you first work, then you think. And often enough to fulfill any governmental goals - the flip side of the strict central control of the economy. So business parks are being built everywhere and often which are then empty, because the market is not there for it. Meanwhile, there are already companies that specialize in cheap take on these ghost towns and convert them for new purposes. Or, after a 20-minute conversation with a foreign company, a "Memorandum of Understanding" will be signed in a major ceremony. It seems that there is also a target that needs to be reported to the party.

# 5 "China's economic growth will not be good for long"
When thinking of Chinese cities, many think of skyscrapers, crowded streets - and smog. People with breathing masks, sick by the polluted breathing air, have to answer for the companies, which subordinate the economic success everything, also the health. Also, I had similar expectations before my stay in China - and was surprised. There was not much air pollution - the sky was clear, the air was pleasant. If you look at it, the reason and extent of the change becomes clear: China has been committed to building an "ecological civilization" as a national strategy since the 17th Party Congress in 2007. And to the leadership of the Communist Party, President Xi Jinping said in 2013, "We will never again seek economic growth at the expense of the environment. "And in China, yes: said, done. Some examples:

China is the world market leader in the sale of electric vehicles - and in public transport as well: All 16,000 buses in Shenzhen are electrically powered. There are supposed to be around 400,000 electric buses in China, and another 19,000 are added every ten weeks (twice as much as London's bus fleet).
Almost one third of the solar panels installed worldwide are located in China (according to Bloomberg).
In 2018, China is reforesting an area the size of Ireland, employing 60,000 troops.
Environmental protection is now in second place in the performance criteria for mayors - just behind the commune's GDP growth.
The implications are as follows: According to Bloomberg, average daily air pollution in Beijing was almost a third lower than in 2015, and in some other major cities there was a decline of about one-tenth.

Best of all, while smog has long been excused as an inevitable byproduct of rising affluence, there are no signs that environmental protection is derailing the country's economy: last year's growth accelerated to 6.9 percent - the first uptrend since seven years. In addition, China sees high-tech industries such as electric cars and solar modules as an opportunity to play a leading role in environmental protection and set standards, not least because of the vacuum that the US is currently leaving behind. So again you can see how quickly China, thanks to its governmental form of a dirigiste capitalism, can kill the counter.

So I can only refer to the ancient wisdom that makes travel - and can only recommend to anyone a visit to China. And not only to the historical China of the Wall and the Terracotta Army, but especially to the modern China in Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, etc. They will make eyes!

https://www.capital.de/wirtschaft-politik/5-mythen-ueber-china

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